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To check the conditions or health of various parts of our body systems and organs, doctor conducts a physical examination, which is taken regularly whenever you visit the doctor for a health check up. If there is any symptom after testing, he concentrates there, easily tracing the disease. If you think your symptoms are restricted to a certain part, then he may check those areas. 
Your doctor may use a couple of basic techniques to conduct a physical examination. Some of them are listed below:

Skin, hair and nails

Skin problems include rashes, discoloration and rough or thin skin that are symptoms of skin disorders, but some indicate a big problem such as systemic lupus erythematosus, a disease that cause inflammation of connective tissue. A conditional change may be visible in your hairs and nails. Thus checkup of hair and nails is also necessary.

Heart and circulation

Your doctor takes your pulse rate by examining your wrist or side of the neck. A rapid pulse suggests a heart problem. An additional information of the circulation is available after examining the pulse rates at other points such as groin.
Stethoscope is basic equipment, used to listen heartbeat. The valves, that are located in the heart at the beginning and ending makes sound, which is heard by it. Additional sounds known as heart murmurs indicate some valve damage. Blood pressure measurement is a routine checkup.

Lungs

Your doctor will notice the changes in your breathing if any difficulty exists. He examine your chest and back with a stethoscope. If any fluid exists in the lungs, he traps the surface of your chest. 

Abdomen and rectum

The entire major organs such as liver, stomach, intestine and kidney are located in abdomen. Just by feeling and tapping abdomen, your doctor can detect abnormal swellings. Examining the intestine with the help of stethoscope can confirm the presence of a blockage.
If you have any symptoms like constipation, the doctor performs a rectal examination. It can also be a part of routine check up to look for colorectal cancer in the age group above 50.

Reproductive organ

In men, the scrotum and testes is examined to detect lumps or any swellings.; The penis also for signs of infections. Males may be checked to make sure that both of their testes have descended properly.
In women, internal parts, such as pelvic examinations are checked to identify the problems of their reproductive systems. A pap test is done once a year in sexually active women to predict for early signs of cancer of the cervix. The doctor may inspect your breast for nipple abnormalities or unusual puckering of the skin.

Bones, joints and muscles

The doctor examine joints for swellings or tenderness, which indicate joint disorder such as arthritis. You can also check the pain-free movement of your joints, all alignments and muscles around the joint. 

Nervous system

Your doctor conduct tests to check strength, co-ordination, balance and also your response to different sensations such as light,sight and smell. A full examination of the nervous system is a complex procedure of testing a range of functions. Frequently, he may ask you extra questions to assess your mental state.

 

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